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Add formal charges to each resonance form of HCNO below.

Based on the formal charges you added above, which structure is favored?

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Formal charge will be assigned to each atom of a Lewis structure for a molecular or ion. The difference in the number of electrons assigned to each atom in a Lewis structure and in the valence electrons within an isolated atom determines the formal charge.

To calculate the formal charge of an atom in a Lewis structure, we use the following equation.

[katex]FC{\rm{ = }}V – N – \frac{B}{2}[/katex]

Here, [katex]FC[/katex]

A Lewis structure without formal charge on an atom of a molecule is more favorable than one with formal charge. Not favorable is a Lewis structure that has formal charges of +2, +2, +2, or +3, +3.

A favorable Lewis structure will have a negative formal charge for more electronegative and a positive formal charge for less electronegative.

The number of valence electrons within an atom is equal to its group number in a periodic table.

Two electrons are required to form a single bond. They are called bonding electrons. Four electrons are required to form a double bond. A triple bond is made using six electrons.

Non-bonding electrons can be placed on atoms in pairs.

A molecule may have multiple Lewis structures. A Lewis structure that has no formal charge on an atom is a favorable structure.

A resonance form is any Lewis structure that exists for a molecule, ion or other substance. You can create a new resonance form by changing the electron pairs and bonds around an atom in a resonance format.

This is the Lewis structure for A resonance form:

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on H}}} \right) = 1 – 0 – \frac{2}{2}\\\\ = 0\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on C}}} \right) = 4 – 4 – \frac{4}{2}\\\\ = – 2\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on N}}} \right) = 5 – 0 – \frac{8}{2}\\\\ = + 1\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on O}}} \right) = 6 – 2 – \frac{6}{2}\\\\ = + 1\\\end{array}[/katex]

This is the resonance form A with a formal charge on each atom:

This is the Lewis structure for B resonance form:

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on H}}} \right) = 1 – 0 – \frac{2}{2}\\\\ = 0\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on C}}} \right) = 4 – 0 – \frac{8}{2}\\\\ = 0\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on N}}} \right) = 5 – 0 – \frac{8}{2}\\\\ = + 1\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on O}}} \right) = 6 – 6 – \frac{2}{2}\\\\ = – 1\\\end{array}[/katex]

This is the resonance form B with a formal charge on each atom:

This is the Lewis structure for C resonance form:

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on H}}} \right) = 1 – 0 – \frac{2}{2}\\\\ = 0\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]FC[/katex]1

[katex]\begin{array}{c}\\FC\left( {{\rm{on N}}} \right) = 5 – 0 – \frac{8}{2}\\\\ = + 1\\\end{array}[/katex]

[katex]FC[/katex]3

This is the resonance form C with a formal charge on every atom:

For [katex]FC[/katex]4, the resonance form B is the preferred structure

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