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1. Which of the following is true of a variable-interval schedule in operant conditioning?
A. It reinforces the first behavior after a fixed amount of time has passed.
B. It rewards behaviors an average number of times but on an unpredictable basis.
C. It reinforces a behavior after an inconsistent and unpredictable amount of time has elapsed.
D. It reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors.
2. Which of the following statements about taste aversion learning is true?
A. It requires many pairings of the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned response of nausea
B. It is a special kind of classical conditioning involving the learned association between a particular taste and nausea.
C. It occurs only when the “taste” is the direct cause of the nausea experienced.
D. It is a special form of negative punishment in which a behavior decreases when a stimulus is removed.
3. Negative reinforcement in operant conditioning is defined as
A. an increase in the frequency of a behavior because it is followed by a desirable stimulus.
B. a decrease in a behavior when it is followed by the presentation of a stimulus.
C. a decrease in a behavior when it is followed by the removal of a stimulus.
D. an increase in the frequency of a behavior because it is followed by the removal of something undesirable.
4. Which of the following statements is true of unconditioned stimuli?
A. They produce a response without prior learning.
B.They are previously neural stimuli that eventually elicit a conditioned response.
C. They are neural stimuli that cause synesthesia.
D. They cause neurotransmitters to be absorbed by ganglia.
5. Operant conditioning is a form of learning that
A. focuses on the association between behaviors and the stimuli that follow them.
B. explains how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responses.
C. is not effective in explaining voluntary behaviors.
D. occurs through the imitation of another person’s actions.
6. Extinction in classical conditioning is
A. the process by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning.
B. the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.
C. the process by which an individual learns to imitate behavior by observing.
D. the strengthening of the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response.
7. According to Hermann Ebbinghaus’s scientific research on forgetting,
A. motivated forgetting protects an individual from threatening information.
B. an individual never actually forgets what he learns.
C. autobiographical memories are the easiest to forget.
D. most forgetting takes place soon after an individual learns something.
8. Which of the following is true of divided attention in the context of memory encoding?
A. Divided attention involves concentrating on different activities, one activity at a time.
B. Divided attention is the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time.
C. Divided attention is not likely to impede an individual’s ability to pay attention to a specific aspect of an experience.
D. Divided attention can be especially detrimental to the process of encoding information.
9. Compared with sensory memory, short-term memory
A. is limited in capacity.
B. lasts for lesser amount of time.
C. becomes less effective when chunking is used.
D. relies more on visual information than auditory information.
10. Recalling the names of the members of a famous football team is an example of
A. iconic memory.
B. implicit memory.
C. declarative memory.
D. procedural memory.
1. Option C is the correct answer. It reinforces behavior after a period of inconsistency and unpredictability.
2. Option B is the correct answer. This is a unique type of classical conditioning that involves the learning association between a particular taste or nausea.
3. Option D is the correct answer. It’s an increase in the frequency of a behavior that is followed by the elimination of something less desirable.
4. Option A is the correct answer. They respond without any prior knowledge.
5. Option A is the correct answer.
6. Option B is the correct answer.
7. Option D is the correct answer.
9. Option B is the correct answer.
10. Option B is the correct answer.