Python is an object-oriented programming language that is widely used. It can create software, websites, games, and mobile applications.“How to normalize a vector in Python” is a fairly common problem that every programmer will face. So, what are our options? Everything will be explained to you.
How to normalize a vector in Python
In the most basic sense, a vector is a single-dimensional array. In Python, one vector is the one-dimensional array of lists. This takes up the components the same way that a Python list does.
Solution 1: Utilize the list comprehension
One vector can be normalized utilizing list comprehension. This is extremely simple to use. Let us learn more about it using the following example:
mylist = [[18,22,19,44]] result = [m / sum(n) for n in mylist for m in n] print(result)
[0.17475728155339806, 0.21359223300970873, 0.18446601941747573, 0.42718446601941745]
Solution 2: Utilize the mathematical formula
You can regulate when using a complex equation. It is extremely simple to use. Let us learn more about it using the following example:
import numpy as np var1 = np.random.rand(3) result1 = var1 / np.sqrt(np.sum(var1**2)) print(result1)
[0.04908173 0.01589104 0.99866834]
Solution 3: Utilize another mathematical formula
To use the mathematical equation, we would then calculate the vector standard of an arrangement in this technique. The standardized vector is obtained by dividing the array by this norm vector. It is implemented in the code below.
import numpy as np v = np.random.rand(10) normalized_v = v / np.sqrt(np.sum(v**2)) print(normalized_v)
[0.10366807 0.05821296 0.11852538 0.42957961 0.27653372 0.36389277 0.47575824 0.32059888 0.2721495 0.41856126]
Solution 4: Utilize the sklearn.preprocessing.normalize()
Excepting the solutions mentioned above, there is another way for you to normalize a vector in Python. It is utilizing the sklearn.preprocessing.normalize().
Effective techniques for data preparation and other machine learning tools are offered in the sklearn module. This library’s normalize() function offers L1 and L2 normalization options and is often used with 2-D matrices. This method will be applied to a 1-D array in the following code to determine its normalized form.
import numpy as np from sklearn.preprocessing import normalize
v = np.random.rand(10) normalized_v = normalize(v[:,np.newaxis], axis=0).ravel() print(normalized_v)
[0.19361438 0.36752554 0.26904722 0.10672546 0.32089067 0.48359538 0.01824837 0.47591181 0.26439268 0.33180998]
A multi-dimensional array in Python can be flattened using the ravel() method, which is utilized in the method above.
Solution 5: Utilize the numpy.linalg.norm()
Utilizing the numpy.linalg.norm() is a great way for you to normalize a vector in Python.
The Python norm() function can return the vector norm of an array from the NumPy module. Then, in order to obtain the normalized vector, we divide the array by this norm vector. For illustration, in the code below, we will generate a random array and use this approach to discover its normalized form.
import numpy as np v = np.random.rand(10) normalized_v = v/np.linalg.norm(v) print(normalized_v)
[0.10881785 0.32038649 0.51652046 0.05670539 0.12873248 0.52460815 0.32929967 0.32699446 0.0753471 0.32043046]
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